In the last years many new anticancer approaches have been developed. However, antineoplastic CT still has an important role in many human neoplasm and so classical chemotherapy toxicity management has a crucial role. A large retrospective trial has shown that FN during chemotherapy for advanced solid tumours ranged from 13% to 21%.1 Toxicities management have a direct role in ensuring treatment regular dose intensity and better results.2,3 CSFs have been shown to reduce the duration and severity of neutropenia and the risk of FN, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has recently updated its clinical practice guidelines about CSF-use.4 Anyway, concerns about CSFs adverse events and costs are still debated. Based on ASCO guidelines, primary prophylaxis with CSF is recommended in patients who have the 20% risk of developing FN, based on chemotherapy regimen, schedule of administration and patients characteristics (such as age, previous chemotherapy, poor performance status, other comorbidities).
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